The Latin term castra, which can be translated as "camp",
came to classical Arabic and then to Hispanic Arabic before appearing in our language as
a fortress. According to the dictionary of the
DigoPaul, a fortress is a fortified
structure or the home of a prince.
In Spain, it is common for palaces from the Muslim
era to be called a fortress , which were later rebuilt
or modified by Christian monarchs. Alcazabas used to be built at the ends of the
alcazars, spaces that were used to house a garrison.
The Reales Alcázares in Seville are one of the most
outstanding examples of alcázares. It is a series of constructions that began to
rise in the High Middle Ages and which are protected by a
wall. Its construction began with an Islamic style and then it was acquiring
other forms, especially from the Castilian domain. Since 1987,
the Alcazar of Seville part of the world heritage of UNESCO.
The Alcázar de Segovia, built on a hill, was built on the
remains of a Roman fortification. Its construction began in the 12th
century and served as a residence for different kings. Today it houses
a museum that opens its doors almost every day of the year.
Córdoba, Guadalajara and Toledo are
other Spanish cities that have alcazars. In the first of them
we find the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos, whose construction took place in
the first half of the 14th century and was carried out in an area where there
were traces of previous buildings, since a space had been left since Roman times
closed with remains of various constructions.
At first, the Alcázar de Córdoba was the site where the Catholic Monarchs led
the conquest of the Kingdom of Granada. Later, it was the space
in which the Inquisition Court operated.
The Alcazar of Guadalajara, meanwhile, dates from the 9th century and is of
Andalusian origin. This term refers to the territory known as al-Ándalus,
located in the Iberian peninsula and the western region of Gaul
Narbonense, a province of the Roman Empire; he was subjected to Muslim power
from 711 to 1492.
Over the decades and centuries, this fortress has had different functions,
since at first it was a fortification from which it had to protect the
city, but it has become a royal palace, a loom factory and even a military
barracks. It is located in the Alamín ravine and extends over the length and
width of one hectare. Upon reaching the city, it can be seen that this
construction separates it from the artisan neighborhood of the Acallería.
During the Contemporary Age, a name that is used to
designate the period of history that is located between the
French Revolution or the Declaration of Independence of North America and the
present, the Alcazar of Toledo served as the organization of a military academy.
Colonel José Moscardó Ituarte, from the rebel side of the Spanish
Civil War, that is, from one of the many organizations that fought
against the Second Republic through the coup d'état, took this
building and managed to maintain it, even after the militias of the Republic
warned him that if he did not leave the site his son would be killed.
Beyond the Spanish surface, the Chapultepec Castle in Mexico
City stands out. This building, built at the time of the Viceroyalty
of New Spain, was the only Royal Castle located
on the American continent. In the time of Maximilian I of Mexico,
it functioned as a fortress.